what are the four types of health systems?

There are four main types of healthcare systems around the world (excluding the US system, where there is no single model at the national level and healthcare is paid for through private insurance or provided by the government to some groups). The Bismarck model was created in the late 19th century by Otto von Bismarck as a more decentralised form of health care. The national health insurance model offers a third type of single-payer national health care system. In poorer countries, where access to health care can be limited by poverty, lack of infrastructure and geographical isolation, many families fear being left to fend for themselves when the virus strikes.

People in rural areas of India and China, as well as parts of Africa and South America, are thus providing health care. Let's take a closer look at the four main types of health systems and how they aim to meet the medical needs of populations. Health systems that apply the Beveridge model are often beset by long waiting lists for treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed major flaws and weaknesses in the current health system.

For MAP residents, healthcare resembles Canada's - single payer with multiple providers - except that the payer is at the county level, not the federal level. In this model, most healthcare is paid for by the government and provided in government-owned facilities through the National Health Service. This method of accessing health care is most common in developing countries where there is no formal system at the state level. A variety of payers, including the state and federal level, in addition to commercial health insurance companies, reimburse health care providers on a fee-for-service basis.

A single payer - usually the government - administers the health system, sets premiums and reimburses providers. Whichever of the four systems is applied, healthcare spending will increase as the coronavirus pandemic demands more and more resources.

Samuel Krejsa
Samuel Krejsa

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